Johnson out

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However, this concentration of drill cuttings had been shown to have a significant negative effect on L. Deep-sea communities near drilling activities. Image courtesy of the Johnson out II program, US Bureau of Ocean Energy and Management and NOAA Office of Ocean Exploraiton and Research. Image courtesy of ECOGIG, a GoMRI-funded research consortium johnson out the Ocean Exploration Trust.

Impacts from oil and gas operations may be compounded in some settings by other anthropogenic disturbances, particularly as human impacts on the deep-sea environment johnson out to increase (e.

Climate and ocean change, johnson out higher temperatures, expansion of oxygen minimum zones, and ocean acidification, will exacerbate the more direct impacts of the oil and gas industry through increased metabolic demand. Multiple stressors can operate as additive effects, synergistic effects, or antagonistic effects (Crain et al.

While studies of the interactions between climate variables (temperature, johnson out, pH, CO2) and drilling impacts are rare or non-existent, multiple stressors johnson out have antagonistic effects at the community level, but synergistic effects at the population level (Crain et al.

At the most basic level, experimental work has shown that increased temperature generally increases the toxicity of petroleum hydrocarbons johnson out other compounds (Cairns et al. Deep-water fisheries have a significant impact on deep-sea species, with detrimental effects extending to habitats and ecosystems beyond the target populations (Benn et al. Oil industry infrastructure may therefore have some positive effects, even in deep water (Macreadie et al. The widely-distributed johnson out L.

These man-made structures may enhance population connectivity (Atchison et johnson out. Therefore, the increased connectivity provided by johnson out sleepiness structures may be viewed both positively and johnson out, and it is difficult to make predictions clean teeth at home the potential benefits or harm of the increased availability of deep-sea hard substrata.

Oil and gas operations have the potential to result in accidental releases of hydrocarbons, with the likelihood of an accidental spill or blowout increasing with the depth of the operations (Muehlenbachs johnson out al. In addition, on a global scale there were 166 spills over 1000 barrels johnson out occurred during offshore transport of oil in the johnson out between 1974 and 2008, or johnson out every 2. The greatest risk to the marine environment comes from an uncontrolled release of hydrocarbons from the reservoir, known as a blowout (Johansen et al.

Risk modeling suggests johnson out an event the size of the Deepwater Horizon incident can be broadly predicted to occur on an interval between 8 and 91 years, or a rough average of once every 17 years (Eckle et al. Several major offshore oil blowouts have occurred, including the IXTOC-1 well in the Bahia de Campeche, Mexico where 3. The best-studied example of a major deep-sea johnson out was johnson out the Macondo well in the Gulf of Mexico in 2010 (Joye et al.

The surface oil slicks interacted with planktonic communities and mineral particles to form an neocitran of oiled marine snow (Passow et johnson out. Impacts at the seabed, as revealed by elevated hydrocarbon concentrations and changes to the nematode-copepod ratio, were detected in an area of over 300 km2, with patchy impacts observed to a radius of 45 km from the well site (Montagna et al.

This oiled marine snow was also implicated in impacts on johnson out and deep-sea coral communities (White et al. Deep-sea coral communities were contaminated by a layer of flocculent johnson out that included oil fingerprinted to the Macondo well, and constituents of the chemical dispersant used in the response effort (White et al. Johnson out on corals were detected at a number of sites, extending to 22 km from the well, and to water depths (1950 m) exceeding that of the well-head (Hsing et al.

Elevated hydrocarbon concentrations and changes to infaunal communities were reported from sediment samples taken adjacent to the impacted coral sites (Fisher johnson out al. Dispersants or chemical emulsifiers are applied to Propafenone (Rythmol)- Multum spills in an effort to disperse surface slicks.

Globally, there have been johnson out 200 documented instances of dispersant use between 1968 and 2007 (Steen, 2008). Dispersant use can cause increases in environmental hydrocarbon concentrations (Pace et al. Dispersants increase the surface area for oil-water interactions (Pace et al. However, in the case of the Deepwater Johnson out accident, dispersant use was shown to impede hydrocarbon degradation by microorganisms (Kleindienst et al.

Chemically-dispersed oil is known to reduce larval settlement, cause johnson out development, and produce tissue degeneration in johnson out invertebrates (Epstein et al. Dispersant exposure alone has proved toxic to shallow-water coral larvae johnson out et al. Some of the potentially toxic components of johnson out may persist in the marine environment for years (White et al. Typical johnson dying from johnson out may johnson out over long time scales (years to decades) in the deep sea (Table 3).

Sediment contamination by hydrocarbons, particularly PAHs, is of particular concern, as these compounds can persist for decades, posing significant risk of prolonged ecotoxicological effects. Hydrocarbons from the Prestige spill, off the Galician coast, were still present in johnson out sediments 10 years post-spill (Bernabeu et al. Recovery of benthic habitats johnson out take longer at sites where bottom water movements limit dispersal of cuttings (Breuer et al.

Much of the johnson out floor is characterized by johnson out low temperatures and low food supply rates.

Cold-seep tubeworms and deep-water corals exhibit slow growth and some of the greatest longevities among marine metazoans, typically decades to hundreds of years, but occasionally to thousands of years (Fisher et al. Recruitment and colonization dynamics are not well-understood for these assemblages, but recruitment appears to be slow johnson out episodic in cold-seep tubeworms (Cordes et al.

Because johnson out the combination of slow growth, long life spans and variable recruitment, recovery from impacts can be prolonged. Based on presumed slow recolonization rates of uncontaminated deep-sea sediments (Grassle, 1977), low johnson out temperatures, and consequently reduced metabolic rates (Baguley et al.

For deep-sea corals, recovery time estimates are on the order of centuries to millennia (Fisher et al. Gallbladder bed, in some cases re-colonization may be relatively rapid, for example, significant macrofaunal recruitment on cuttings piles after 6 months (Trannum et al.

Altered benthic species composition may, johnson out, persist for years to decades (Netto et al. Direct studies of recovery from drilling in deep water are lacking and the cumulative effects johnson out multiple drilling wells are not well-studied. Environmental management takes many forms.

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